Jugaad and innovation: Which links?

Elena Giaretta, Chiara Rossato, Syed Shan-E-Raza


Purpose. The paper aims to better investigate Jugaad phenomenon to achieve a more correct definition and framing of the concept itself compared to the innovation one.

Methodology. Owing to limited availability of data related to Jugaad and, in add, the fact that it is a cultural specific phenomenon developed in certain geographic area with particular socio-cultural characteristics, it seemed to us appropriated to choose autoethnography as qualitative research methodology. We have applied text analysis as tool to study in depth the literature that encircle the concept of Jugaad, invention and innovation in various way.

Findings. The literature review has revealed poor clarity about the subject. In particular, there is a lack of a reasoned placement of Jugaad with respect to the concepts of invention and innovation. For this reason we have proposed a Jugaad positioning model with respect to invention and innovation. Moreover we have identified three different forms of Jugaad: survival Jugaad, creative Jugaad and innovative Jugaad.

Practical implications. Jugaad, in particular innovative one, has relevant implication in the entrepreneurial world because it has a great potential to reap the benefit of the talents and ideas available at grass root level and come up with breakthrough innovations.

Originality/value. The paper represent a first comprehensive study about the subject of Jugaad phenomenon. It underlines similarities and differences between Jugaad, invention and innovation and it highlights the distinct “core novelty” included in each concept.


Jugaad; forms of innovation; invention; creativity; bottom of pyramid people; developing economies

Full Text:



Anderson L. (2006). “Analytic autoethnography” Journal of contemporary ethnography, 35(4): 373-395.

Arthur W.B. (2007). “The structure of invention”, Research policy, 36(2): 274-287.

Balatchandirane G. (2010). “Strategic implications of human capital TODAY”, IDSA International Workshop on National Security Strategy.

Barodawala B., Banerjee R., Roy S., Kapur V. (2015), ““Jugaad”- The Perennial Short-term Solution”, World Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2): 163-176.

Bartel C.A., Garud R. (2009). “The role of narratives in sustaining organizational innovation”, Organization science, 20(1): 107-117.

Baskaran S., Malekar G., Mehta K., (2012) “The Global Jugaad Commons: Cross-pollinating Concepts across Cultures”, Proceedings of National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Annual Meeting, San Francisco, March.

Bhatti Y.A. (2012). "What is frugal, what is innovation? Towards a theory of frugal innovation", Working Paper, Oxford Centre for Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2005910.

Birtchnell T. (2011). “Jugaad as systemic risk and disruptive innovation in India” Contemporary South Asia, 19(4): 357-372.

Brem A., Wolfram P. (2014). “Research and development from the bottom up-introduction of terminologies for new product development in emerging markets”, Journal of innovation and entrepreneurship, 3(1): 1-22.

Chaturvedi A. (2014). “Jugaad”, International journal of multimedia information retrieval, 3(2): 4-8.

Christensen C.M., (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Coccia M. (2006). “Classifications of innovations: Survey and future directions”, Working Paper Ceris-Cnr, 8(2): 3-19.

Craig J., Young S. (2014). “Jugād: Youth and Enterprise in India”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(1): 182-195.

Drechsler Sharp M., Riera J.L., Jones S.R. (2012). “Telling our stories: Using autoethnography to construct identities at the intersections”, Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 49(3): 315-332.

Freeman C. (1982). The Economics of Industrial Innovation, 2nd edn, London: Pinter.

Govindarjan V. (2011). “Jugaad - A Model for Innovation”, Forbes India Magazine, June 1, Retrieved from http://forbesindia.com/printcontent/25512.

Gupta A.K. “This is not Jugaad: a misnomer for majority of the grassroots innovations". Unpublished article.

Gupta V.K. (2008). “Indian patent output 1990-2007”, India, Science and Technology, National Institute of Science, Technology And Development Studies (NISTADS), CSIR: India. Retrieved from http://www.nistads.res.in/indiasnt2008/t5output/t5out9.htm.

Guthrie H., Dawe S. (2004). “Overview: What is Innovation”. Vocational education and training and innovation: Research readings. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research Ltd.

Herrmann, D.K. (1999), “Tracking systems as a catalyst for incremental innovation”, Management Decision, 37(10): 786-791.

Hoffmann, V. (2011). “Knowledge and Innovation Management”, Module Reader. Hohenheim University.

Jon-Arild J. (2008). “Organisational innovation as part of knowledge management”, International Journal of Information Management, 28(5): 403-412.

Kotsemir M.N., Abroskin A., Meissner D., (2013) “Innovation Concepts and Typology – An Evolutionary Discussion”, Higher School of Economics Research Paper, WP BRP 05/STI/2013. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2221299.

Krishnan R.T. (2010). From jugaad to systematic innovation: The challenge for India, Bangalore, India: Utpreraka Foundation.

Kumar V., Chand V.S., Zhang L., Hoppers C.A.O., Zhang W., Esders M., Gupta A.K., (2013). “Colloquium Grassroots Innovations for Inclusive Development: Need for a Paradigmatic Shift”, VIKALPA, 38(3): 103-122.

Malhotra D., Seth S. (2013). “Jugaad as a Strategy: An Indian Perspective”, International journal of Innovative research & studies, 2(12): 289-300.

Mantri A., Ahuja S. (2015). “Innovation Management process in young academic institutes”, Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, Special Issue, January: 252-256.

Migliaccio M. (2005), “Innovazione architetturale ed innovazione radicale: effetti sulle competenze organizzative delle imprese”, Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, n. 67, p. 259-264.

O’Sullivan, D., Dooley L. (2009). Applying Innovation, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Pitterle S. (2014). "STEPHEN'S E-PORTFOLIO", April 29th. Retrieved from http://sites.psu.edu/stephen/blog/.

Prahalad C. K. (2012). “Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1): 6-12.

Prahalad, C. K., & Mashelkar, R. A. (2010). “Innovation’s Holy Grail”, Harvard Business Review, (July-August): 10.

Radjou N., Prabhu J., Ahuja S. (2012). Jugaad innovation: Think frugal, be flexible, generate breakthrough growth. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Rai, A.S. (2015). “The affect of Jugaad: Frugal innovation and postcolonial practice in India’s mobile phone ecology” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 33(6): 985-1002.

Rao B.C. (2013). “How disruptive is frugal?”, Technology in Society, 35(1): 65-73.

Rouse, W.B. (1992). Strategies for Innovation: Creating Successful Products, Systems, and Organizations, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Satpathy I., Patnail B.C.M. (2012). “JUGAADU - The Smart and Cost effective Innovative Managers”, Journal of Business Management & Social Sciences Research, 1(1): 19-23.

Schumpeter J.A. (1934). Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sekhsaria P., (2013). “The making of an indigenous STM: Technological Jugaad as a culture of innovation in India”, (pp. 137–152). In Konrad K., Coenen C., Dijkstra A., Milburn C.,, van Lente H., (Eds.), Shaping Emerging Technologies: Governance, Innovation, Discourse. Amsterdam: IOS Press and AKA.

Senge P. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, New York: Doubleday Currency.

Singh R., Gupta K.V., Mondal A. (2012). “Jugaad - From ‘Making Do’ and ‘Quick Fix’ to an innovative, sustainable and low-cost survival strategy at the bottom of the pyramid”, International Journal of Rural Management, 8(1-2): 87-105.

Singh S., Sharma G., Mahendru M. (2011). “The Jugaad Technology (Indigenous Innovations), A Case Study of Indian Origin”, Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management, 2(4): 157-168.

Sinha, J.B.P. (1995). “Factors facilitating and impeding growth of psychology in South Asia with special reference to India”, International journal of Psychology, 30(6): 741-753.

Wall S., (2008) “Easier said than done: Writing an autoethnography”, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 7(1): 38-53.

WIPO MAGAZINE, (2013) “Chotukool: Keeping things cool with frugal innovation”, 6: 6-8. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2013/06/article_0003.html.

Wooldridge A. (2010). “First break all the rules: The charms of frugal innovation”, The Economist, Special Report: Innovation in Emerging Markets, April 15th.


  • There are currently no refbacks.